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Returns self with only the first occurrence (not all occurrences) of the given pattern replaced.
 
               static VALUE
rb_str_sub_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    VALUE pat, repl, hash = Qnil;
    int iter = 0;
    long plen;
    int min_arity = rb_block_given_p() ? 1 : 2;
    long beg;

    rb_check_arity(argc, min_arity, 2);
    if (argc == 1) {
        iter = 1;
    }
    else {
        repl = argv[1];
        hash = rb_check_hash_type(argv[1]);
        if (NIL_P(hash)) {
            StringValue(repl);
        }
    }

    pat = get_pat_quoted(argv[0], 1);

    str_modifiable(str);
    beg = rb_pat_search(pat, str, 0, 1);
    if (beg >= 0) {
        rb_encoding *enc;
        int cr = ENC_CODERANGE(str);
        long beg0, end0;
        VALUE match, match0 = Qnil;
        struct re_registers *regs;
        char *p, *rp;
        long len, rlen;

        match = rb_backref_get();
        regs = RMATCH_REGS(match);
        if (RB_TYPE_P(pat, T_STRING)) {
            beg0 = beg;
            end0 = beg0 + RSTRING_LEN(pat);
            match0 = pat;
        }
        else {
            beg0 = BEG(0);
            end0 = END(0);
            if (iter) match0 = rb_reg_nth_match(0, match);
        }

        if (iter || !NIL_P(hash)) {
            p = RSTRING_PTR(str); len = RSTRING_LEN(str);

            if (iter) {
                repl = rb_obj_as_string(rb_yield(match0));
            }
            else {
                repl = rb_hash_aref(hash, rb_str_subseq(str, beg0, end0 - beg0));
                repl = rb_obj_as_string(repl);
            }
            str_mod_check(str, p, len);
            rb_check_frozen(str);
        }
        else {
            repl = rb_reg_regsub(repl, str, regs, RB_TYPE_P(pat, T_STRING) ? Qnil : pat);
        }

        enc = rb_enc_compatible(str, repl);
        if (!enc) {
            rb_encoding *str_enc = STR_ENC_GET(str);
            p = RSTRING_PTR(str); len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
            if (coderange_scan(p, beg0, str_enc) != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT ||
                coderange_scan(p+end0, len-end0, str_enc) != ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT) {
                rb_raise(rb_eEncCompatError, "incompatible character encodings: %s and %s",
                         rb_enc_name(str_enc),
                         rb_enc_name(STR_ENC_GET(repl)));
            }
            enc = STR_ENC_GET(repl);
        }
        rb_str_modify(str);
        rb_enc_associate(str, enc);
        if (ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN < cr && cr < ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN) {
            int cr2 = ENC_CODERANGE(repl);
            if (cr2 == ENC_CODERANGE_BROKEN ||
                (cr == ENC_CODERANGE_VALID && cr2 == ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT))
                cr = ENC_CODERANGE_UNKNOWN;
            else
                cr = cr2;
        }
        plen = end0 - beg0;
        rlen = RSTRING_LEN(repl);
        len = RSTRING_LEN(str);
        if (rlen > plen) {
            RESIZE_CAPA(str, len + rlen - plen);
        }
        p = RSTRING_PTR(str);
        if (rlen != plen) {
            memmove(p + beg0 + rlen, p + beg0 + plen, len - beg0 - plen);
        }
        rp = RSTRING_PTR(repl);
        memmove(p + beg0, rp, rlen);
        len += rlen - plen;
        STR_SET_LEN(str, len);
        TERM_FILL(&RSTRING_PTR(str)[len], TERM_LEN(str));
        ENC_CODERANGE_SET(str, cr);

        return str;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
            

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