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Returns a printable version of self, enclosed in double-quotes, and with special characters escaped:
s = "foo\tbar\tbaz\n"
# => "foo\tbar\tbaz\n"
s.inspect
# => "\"foo\\tbar\\tbaz\\n\""
 
               VALUE
rb_str_inspect(VALUE str)
{
    int encidx = ENCODING_GET(str);
    rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_from_index(encidx), *actenc;
    const char *p, *pend, *prev;
    char buf[CHAR_ESC_LEN + 1];
    VALUE result = rb_str_buf_new(0);
    rb_encoding *resenc = rb_default_internal_encoding();
    int unicode_p = rb_enc_unicode_p(enc);
    int asciicompat = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc);

    if (resenc == NULL) resenc = rb_default_external_encoding();
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(resenc)) resenc = rb_usascii_encoding();
    rb_enc_associate(result, resenc);
    str_buf_cat2(result, "\"");

    p = RSTRING_PTR(str); pend = RSTRING_END(str);
    prev = p;
    actenc = get_actual_encoding(encidx, str);
    if (actenc != enc) {
        enc = actenc;
        if (unicode_p) unicode_p = rb_enc_unicode_p(enc);
    }
    while (p < pend) {
        unsigned int c, cc;
        int n;

        n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p, pend, enc);
        if (!MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(n)) {
            if (p > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - prev);
            n = rb_enc_mbminlen(enc);
            if (pend < p + n)
                n = (int)(pend - p);
            while (n--) {
                snprintf(buf, CHAR_ESC_LEN, "\\x%02X", *p & 0377);
                str_buf_cat(result, buf, strlen(buf));
                prev = ++p;
            }
            continue;
        }
        n = MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_LEN(n);
        c = rb_enc_mbc_to_codepoint(p, pend, enc);
        p += n;
        if ((asciicompat || unicode_p) &&
          (c == '"'|| c == '\\' ||
            (c == '#' &&
             p < pend &&
             MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p,pend,enc)) &&
             (cc = rb_enc_codepoint(p,pend,enc),
              (cc == '$' || cc == '@' || cc == '{'))))) {
            if (p - n > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - n - prev);
            str_buf_cat2(result, "\\");
            if (asciicompat || enc == resenc) {
                prev = p - n;
                continue;
            }
        }
        switch (c) {
          case '\n': cc = 'n'; break;
          case '\r': cc = 'r'; break;
          case '\t': cc = 't'; break;
          case '\f': cc = 'f'; break;
          case '\013': cc = 'v'; break;
          case '\010': cc = 'b'; break;
          case '\007': cc = 'a'; break;
          case 033: cc = 'e'; break;
          default: cc = 0; break;
        }
        if (cc) {
            if (p - n > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - n - prev);
            buf[0] = '\\';
            buf[1] = (char)cc;
            str_buf_cat(result, buf, 2);
            prev = p;
            continue;
        }
        if ((enc == resenc && rb_enc_isprint(c, enc)) ||
            (asciicompat && rb_enc_isascii(c, enc) && ISPRINT(c))) {
            continue;
        }
        else {
            if (p - n > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - n - prev);
            rb_str_buf_cat_escaped_char(result, c, unicode_p);
            prev = p;
            continue;
        }
    }
    if (p > prev) str_buf_cat(result, prev, p - prev);
    str_buf_cat2(result, "\"");

    return result;
}
            

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