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Returns a printable version of self, enclosed in double-quotes, with special characters escaped, and with non-printing characters replaced by hexadecimal notation:
"hello \n ''".dump    # => "\"hello \\n ''\""
"\f\x00\xff\\\"".dump # => "\"\\f\\x00\\xFF\\\\\\\"\""
Related: String#undump (inverse of String#dump).
 
               VALUE
rb_str_dump(VALUE str)
{
    int encidx = rb_enc_get_index(str);
    rb_encoding *enc = rb_enc_from_index(encidx);
    long len;
    const char *p, *pend;
    char *q, *qend;
    VALUE result;
    int u8 = (encidx == rb_utf8_encindex());
    static const char nonascii_suffix[] = ".dup.force_encoding(\"%s\")";

    len = 2;                    /* "" */
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        len += strlen(nonascii_suffix) - rb_strlen_lit("%s");
        len += strlen(enc->name);
    }

    p = RSTRING_PTR(str); pend = p + RSTRING_LEN(str);
    while (p < pend) {
        int clen;
        unsigned char c = *p++;

        switch (c) {
          case '"':  case '\\':
          case '\n': case '\r':
          case '\t': case '\f':
          case '\013': case '\010': case '\007': case '\033':
            clen = 2;
            break;

          case '#':
            clen = IS_EVSTR(p, pend) ? 2 : 1;
            break;

          default:
            if (ISPRINT(c)) {
                clen = 1;
            }
            else {
                if (u8 && c > 0x7F) { /* \u notation */
                    int n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p-1, pend, enc);
                    if (MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(n)) {
                        unsigned int cc = rb_enc_mbc_to_codepoint(p-1, pend, enc);
                        if (cc <= 0xFFFF)
                            clen = 6;  /* \uXXXX */
                        else if (cc <= 0xFFFFF)
                            clen = 9;  /* \u{XXXXX} */
                        else
                            clen = 10; /* \u{XXXXXX} */
                        p += MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_LEN(n)-1;
                        break;
                    }
                }
                clen = 4;     /* \xNN */
            }
            break;
        }

        if (clen > LONG_MAX - len) {
            rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "string size too big");
        }
        len += clen;
    }

    result = rb_str_new(0, len);
    p = RSTRING_PTR(str); pend = p + RSTRING_LEN(str);
    q = RSTRING_PTR(result); qend = q + len + 1;

    *q++ = '"';
    while (p < pend) {
        unsigned char c = *p++;

        if (c == '"' || c == '\\') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = c;
        }
        else if (c == '#') {
            if (IS_EVSTR(p, pend)) *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = '#';
        }
        else if (c == '\n') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'n';
        }
        else if (c == '\r') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'r';
        }
        else if (c == '\t') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 't';
        }
        else if (c == '\f') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'f';
        }
        else if (c == '\013') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'v';
        }
        else if (c == '\010') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'b';
        }
        else if (c == '\007') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'a';
        }
        else if (c == '\033') {
            *q++ = '\\';
            *q++ = 'e';
        }
        else if (ISPRINT(c)) {
            *q++ = c;
        }
        else {
            *q++ = '\\';
            if (u8) {
                int n = rb_enc_precise_mbclen(p-1, pend, enc) - 1;
                if (MBCLEN_CHARFOUND_P(n)) {
                    int cc = rb_enc_mbc_to_codepoint(p-1, pend, enc);
                    p += n;
                    if (cc <= 0xFFFF)
                        snprintf(q, qend-q, "u%04X", cc);    /* \uXXXX */
                    else
                        snprintf(q, qend-q, "u{%X}", cc);  /* \u{XXXXX} or \u{XXXXXX} */
                    q += strlen(q);
                    continue;
                }
            }
            snprintf(q, qend-q, "x%02X", c);
            q += 3;
        }
    }
    *q++ = '"';
    *q = '\0';
    if (!rb_enc_asciicompat(enc)) {
        snprintf(q, qend-q, nonascii_suffix, enc->name);
        encidx = rb_ascii8bit_encindex();
    }
    /* result from dump is ASCII */
    rb_enc_associate_index(result, encidx);
    ENC_CODERANGE_SET(result, ENC_CODERANGE_7BIT);
    return result;
}
            

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