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Each other_str parameter defines a set of characters to count. The intersection of these sets defines the characters to count in str. Any other_str that starts with a caret ^ is negated. The sequence c1-c2 means all characters between c1 and c2. The backslash character \ can be used to escape ^ or - and is otherwise ignored unless it appears at the end of a sequence or the end of a other_str.
a = "hello world"
a.count "lo"                   #=> 5
a.count "lo", "o"              #=> 2
a.count "hello", "^l"          #=> 4
a.count "ej-m"                 #=> 4

"hello^world".count "\\^aeiou" #=> 4
"hello-world".count "a\\-eo"   #=> 4

c = "hello world\\r\\n"
c.count "\\"                   #=> 2
c.count "\\A"                  #=> 0
c.count "X-\\w"                #=> 3
 
               static VALUE
rb_str_count(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE str)
{
    char table[TR_TABLE_SIZE];
    rb_encoding *enc = 0;
    VALUE del = 0, nodel = 0, tstr;
    char *s, *send;
    int i;
    int ascompat;
    size_t n = 0;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);

    tstr = argv[0];
    StringValue(tstr);
    enc = rb_enc_check(str, tstr);
    if (argc == 1) {
        const char *ptstr;
        if (RSTRING_LEN(tstr) == 1 && rb_enc_asciicompat(enc) &&
            (ptstr = RSTRING_PTR(tstr),
             ONIGENC_IS_ALLOWED_REVERSE_MATCH(enc, (const unsigned char *)ptstr, (const unsigned char *)ptstr+1)) &&
            !is_broken_string(str)) {
            int clen;
            unsigned char c = rb_enc_codepoint_len(ptstr, ptstr+1, &clen, enc);

            s = RSTRING_PTR(str);
            if (!s || RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
            send = RSTRING_END(str);
            while (s < send) {
                if (*(unsigned char*)s++ == c) n++;
            }
            return SIZET2NUM(n);
        }
    }

    tr_setup_table(tstr, table, TRUE, &del, &nodel, enc);
    for (i=1; i<argc; i++) {
        tstr = argv[i];
        StringValue(tstr);
        enc = rb_enc_check(str, tstr);
        tr_setup_table(tstr, table, FALSE, &del, &nodel, enc);
    }

    s = RSTRING_PTR(str);
    if (!s || RSTRING_LEN(str) == 0) return INT2FIX(0);
    send = RSTRING_END(str);
    ascompat = rb_enc_asciicompat(enc);
    while (s < send) {
        unsigned int c;

        if (ascompat && (c = *(unsigned char*)s) < 0x80) {
            if (table[c]) {
                n++;
            }
            s++;
        }
        else {
            int clen;
            c = rb_enc_codepoint_len(s, send, &clen, enc);
            if (tr_find(c, table, del, nodel)) {
                n++;
            }
            s += clen;
        }
    }

    return SIZET2NUM(n);
}
            

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